Moscow veiled guppies by Vasiliev N. Polkanov F. [from 1971] in English

Visually clarification / evidence were not recorded or published.

If the Moscow guppists (guppy lovers / breeders) decided to choose an emblem for themselves, it would most likely be the image of a male of the so-called Moscow veiled breed. And not only because the breed is of local origin, and therefore there is something to be proud of. These fishes are bright – red in them, burns like fire, green, shines with emerald, blackness is deep, velvet, and the figure is defined and strict. The first mention of the breed appeared in the article of NA Vasiliev in 1957. Then about them it was spoken in each report on competitions. It would seem that significant literature has gathered. But in fact there is still no complete description of this breed, nor is the history of its origin. Is it not time to talk about the Moscow veiled guppies in detail? In the prewar years, the state could not spend currency on the acquisition of exotic fish and the inflow of new products was weak. And when there are no imported novelties, lovers tend to make them themselves. Therefore, a keen interest in breeding is understandable. Basically, the rulers of doom aquarists were poecilia and sword bearers and their diverse hybrids. But the guppies also had loyal fans. One of the first – MV Matasov. In amateur circles, he received the nickname “Mr. Guppy.” A man of special, unpretentious politeness and modesty, Matasov was a tireless worker in breeding, worked purposefully and persistently. The material he served as a laboratory line from the collection of Professor VF Natali – one of the founders of the private genetics of guppies. Unattractive, marked by one or two marker genes, these lines in combinations gave sometimes very bright original fish, and Matasov selected these fish, improved year after year. One can not help but mention PN Barto, who at one time had the best guppies in Moscow. Pavel Nikolayevich lived in a common apartment near the Kursk railway station, and as soon as he crossed the threshold of this apartment, it became immediately clear: the people here are cramped. Closely and guppies. They lived on a table in round jars, of which the biggest one was unlikely to be in three buckets. All “economy” was illuminated by one weak bulb, and that the fish did not freeze, the banks along with the lamp were covered with a blanket. No compressors (air pumps), and about the filters in those years generally had no idea, stresses These conditions were characteristic for the time: in banks kept guppy Matasov, in the banks lived fish and one of the authors of this article NA Vasilieva. And the breed, the Moscow round-tailed, formed to war, carried its imprint on these conditions. The fish were colorful and bright, but very small: in small banks only small fish felt tolerable. Moscow roundtails are very diverse. Red, with a bloody gleam, red-orange with pearly “smears” of the forehead, a black outline of the entire back – from the dorsal fin through the tail to the anal, silver, scarlet or green spots in the tail, the dorsal fin is small and rounded, then a moss Suddenly “with a smoke” – exactly two-story, upbeat and extended. Standardization, monotony – all this came later, already as achievements of the competitive selection period. Still, the Moscow round-tailed ones were genetically remarkable in that they all had the same unique Moscow Y chromosome (gamer-chromosome).

This chromosome is an obligatory accessory of the male, passed from father to son. In it, the guppies have genes for determining the male sex, in it also the genes of many color spots. The accumulation of genes in the Y chromosome can occur only with the help of rare hereditary changes – mutations. At least four such genes are clearly detected and always present in the Moscow Y chromosome. The first of these is Maculatus. It causes the appearance of a round or other form of black spot on the dorsal fin of silver or red. It also causes the appearance of a scarlet stain on the front of the body, but it is masked by Muscovites of the same color by an oval spot in the same place caused by the Reticulatus gene. In addition to this stain, Reticulatus causes a longitudinal large blood-red stain in the forehead and a mesh on the tail – in the Moscow breed it is either red or silver (silver and red in guppies easily pass into each other). The appearance of a black spot (“beans”) on the gonopodia also causes a reticulatum. The Viridis gene is responsible for the luminous green spot near the anal fin. The Filigran gene completes the traditional appearance of Moscow fish, as if unifying, collecting all these spots in an unbreakable whole. It is a black edging in the back of the body. Ruby and an emerald in a black frame – is it a classic combination? And mother of pearl? A “smoke”? And the greens in the tail? All these signs are due to the genes of other chromosomes, mainly the X chromosome. Over the past decade, new apartments have a place for large aquariums. Equipped they are now much better. In the selection of guppies it became possible to begin the formation of a new breed, much more powerful and modern – the veil guppies. For the first time veal guppies was demonstrated by VM Maranchak. This aquarist does everything. Vasily Makarovich loves order in everything. And since he started guppy, he kept them in excellent conditions: in large aquariums, in clean water, with constant purging and on abundant food, all this in combination with selection was not slow to give results. Round-tailed became larger and their tails changed. There are appendages (“fingers”), and some have real veils, though not resembling modern triangles, but in the shape of a fork or lyre. These guppies made a real furore in Moscow, but the changes could not be fixed: Vasily Makarovich himself stopped guppies, while other breeders, taking the producers from VM Maranchak, did not adopt his methods of maintenance. In banks, of course, round-tailed soon returned to its original state. Nevertheless, the experiment of VM Maranchak did not pass without a trace. He began to hunt for “fingers” PN Barto. Quite soon he brought out a relatively stable line of so-called “roosters” – males with two or three “fingers”, the upper one being the longest. There were males with a lace, with a fringe. The most popular at that time was the male “Partizan” DE Poyarkova. He had a large tail combined with a magnificent dorsal fin. It must be assumed that during this period (1950-1952) hereditary material already allowed to have real veil guppies, but the conditions of detention prevented them. It was at this time that Mikhail Vasilyevich Matasov began to grow guppies in large aquariums, on abundant forages. And immediately he got magnificent males with modern veils and typical Moscow coloring. Four males from this litter were transferred to GI Kretov, IA Lazarev, VPDruzhinin and NA Vasiliev. This moment (1952) we consider the date of birth of the Moscow veile breed. Now in Moscow aquariums there are a lot of veil guppies of different breeds: there are henels and blacks, and various cobra. There is no need to compare the breeds in beauty, this is a matter of taste. But compare the conditions of the content is necessary. Of all our existing breeds, Moscow’s veil are the most complex. The slightest omission in cultivation leads here to marriage. Fish are small, tails are narrow, they break off. So the Moscow breed is a shred, on which the skill of an aquarist is honed. That is why it is not so simple, not immediately formed the history of the breed, the more so that at competitions Muscovites never made any benefits.

Since its inception, the Moscow veil has undergone great changes. Initially small, with weak narrow tails, they acquired a fortress over the years, the tails became powerful and wide. It is a medium-sized fish, although giants sometimes appeared among them. The shape of the male is elegant, it is relatively narrow, but not effeminate. The prehistory is ruby- or blood-red, luminous, tinted with a coal-black stroke. Sometimes it has orange-amber, also luminous strokes. On the lower edge of the forehead, between the red and black, there is often a narrow pearly strip. The second oval blood-red spot lies in front of the dorsal fin. On the abdomen, near the base of the gonopodium, there is a luminous green spot. From the eye parallel to the back a third of the length of the body stretches a coal-black brow. Right under the dorsal fin, there is often a round black spot. A spot of the same color in the form of a string bean lies on a green spot, above the gonopodium. The tail of modern forms is charcoal-black, often with a group of silver spots at the base. In the past, it happened that these specks spread all over the tail, and it looked either silver carpet or carpet red. The angle under which the rays of the tail diverge, that of good males is not less than 60 °. The posterior edge of the tail can be “edged”, that is, in a line with a notch, or a fan. Clippings, notches and other defects are not allowed. Dorsal fin either small and rounded, silver with black spots (sometimes black), or in the form of a wide, dangling scarf painted on the male and colorless in the female (veape-scarf guppies). The female is graceful in form. All fins are colorless, only a black dot at the base of the tail is permissible. This description can serve as a standard for the breed. He is called upon to help the beginner understand what the Moscow guppies are, but in no case should it interfere with the breeder in search of new spots and new forms. It is curious that along with the Moscow veilevs (veiled guppies) false false ones were created. At first glance, they seem to have everything the same, but it’s worth taking a closer look – and everything turns out different. It is a powerful fish with a wide tail. It has a lot of Muscovites, but the Y-chromosome is different. It is striking that the tail of her is not charcoal, but ash-black, and this blackness comes on the forehead, reducing the red zone. There is no second red spot. There is never a black stroke in the back of the body. There is no black spot in the middle of the body (above the gonopodium). Sometimes false Muscovites are of very good quality, but in terms of sports they are inferior to real Muscovites. For all the years, false Muscovites only once received a first degree diploma, while real Moscow has 27 such awards. Close to the false Muscovites are the Moscow blue selections of YA Levitsa. This is an excellent breed, which has the widest tails of blue color. More recently, VP Druzhinin proved that females of false Muscovites can be used in restorative work with Moscow guppies. The offspring are obtained in the father, that is, in appearance it is purely Moscow.

Категория: Биология
Работа на тему: Московские вуалевые гуппи
Тип: Реферат


About Igor Dusanic

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