Kirpichnikov Valentin Sergeevich (1908–1991) — the outstanding Russian biologist, Dr.Sci.Biol., the academician of the Russian Academy of Natural Sciences, the Hero of the Socialist Work who has brought the big contribution to studying of Pacific salmons. Was born on August, 14th, 1908. In 1928 has arrived in the Moscow state university which has ended in 1932. Still student V.S.Kirpichnikov has selected the speciality genetics. Its teachers were N.K.Koltsov and S.S.Chetverikov, subsequently it closely co-operated with N.I.Vavilov, I.I.Shmalgauzenom and many other outstanding domestic biologists. The first works on genetics and V.S.Kirpichnikovym’s evolutionary theory have been executed at Institute of experimental biology. In 1935 he has offered a hypothesis about indirect selection which had huge value for the decision of a problem of inheritance of the got signs. Since 1930th years Valentine Sergeevich has selected the direct speciality genetics and selection of fishes. As the basic objects of researches to it served Cyprinidae and Pacific salmons. On the basis of genetics and the evolutionary theory in 1930-1960th years, working at the Central scientific institute of a fish economy and Institute of pound economy (Moscow), and also at Institute of a lake and river fish economy (now GosNiIoRh) and Zoological institute (Leningrad), V.S.Kirpichnikov has developed methods of selection which have allowed to create new breeds of fishes, including well-known “Ropshinsky carp”, possessing reistence to cold and high efficiency. It has given the chance to advance essentially carp on the north.
In 1937 together with A.A.Malinovsky has sent the letter in protection of genetics to Stalin. Participated in discussion on genetics in 1939. After war has directed a number of letters on position in genetics to the Government and to president AS of the USSR. When support of “Michurinsk biology” has been entered by diligence of Dr. Lysenko in the CPSU Program, V.S.Kirpichnikov has published together with Z.A.Medvedev article “Prospect of the Soviet genetics” in “Neva” magazine , caused dispersal of edition and next “studies” of its author. In days of the Great Patriotic War V.S.Kirpichnikov was at the front and has got demobilise only in December, 1945. For military service it has been awarded by a number of fighting awards and medals. From the beginning of 1970th years V.S.Kirpichnikov worked at Institute of cytology of Academy of sciences and annually came to Kamchatka where conducted researches on genetics of salmon fishes. In 1973-1985, studying polymorphism of various of Oncorhynchus nerka populations, Valentine Sergeevich has visited on many lakes of peninsula (on Distant, Near, Kuril, Kronotsky, Nachikinsky, Azabachem, Palansky, Sarannom on Bering island). Here it with the colleagues and pupils has collected the data about features of genetic structure of this kind of Pacific salmons. Laboratory processing of a material has yielded the important scientific results.
From the beginning of 1970th years V.S.Kirpichnikov worked at Institute of cytology of Academy of sciences and annually came to Kamchatka where conducted researches on genetics of salmon fishes. In 1973-1985, studying polymorphism of various populations нерки, Valentine Sergeevich has visited on many lakes of peninsula (on Distant, Near, Kuril, Kronotsky, Nachikinsky, Azabachem, Palansky, Sarannom on Bering island). Here it with the colleagues and pupils has collected the data about features of genetic structure of this kind of Pacific salmons. Laboratory processing of a material has yielded the important scientific results. Representations about adaptive value of high level of genetic variability of populations have been generated. Research work of Kirpichnikov are about communication of geographical variability of Oncorhynchus nerka populations with the directed changes of concentration alleles, coding enzymes with a various temperature optimum of activity, have played the important role in overcoming of extreme measures of the neutralist concept of molecular biology. It has been shown that many vital forms of fishes differing on structure and structure of fibers, differ on physiological features — on stability to temperatures, illnesses etc. Perfectly realising importance of preparation of scientific shots, V.S.Kirpichnikov taught for a number of years at first in Mosrybvtuze, and then at the Leningrad (St.-Petersburg) university, reading courses on genetics and acclimatisation of fishes. Valentine Sergeevich has prepared tens candidates and doctors of sciences.
For years of the scientific activity V.S.Kirpichnikov has published more than 200 scientific works. Its classical work “Genetic bases of selection of fishes” (1979) has obtained the world recognition and is translated into English, German and Japanese languages.
In 1990 Valentine Sergeevich has received a rank of the Hero of Socialist Work for the outstanding contribution to preservation and development of genetics and selection to Russia. Some months prior to death it has been selected by the full member of Academy of natural sciences of the Russian Federation.
Kolchinsky E., Polyansky J. The Scientist and the citizen//Genetics. — 1992. — V. 28. — № 2. — pp. 182–184.
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